- 4298 小时
- 2474 点
发表于 2010-10-11 03:46:49
本帖最后由 metta 于 2010-10-11 03:50 编辑 |
汤华俊 编辑翻译 2005年7月
"And what is right speech? Abstaining from lying, from divisivespeech, from abusive speech, & from idle chatter:This is called right speech." —SN XLV.8
Five keys to right speech
"Monks, a statement endowed with five factors is well-spoken,not ill-spoken. It is blameless & unfaulted byknowledgeable people. Which five?
"It is spoken at the right time. It is spoken in truth. It isspoken affectionately. It is spoken beneficially. It is spoken witha mind of good-will." —AN V.198
The danger in lying
"For the person who transgresses in one thing, I tell you, thereis no evil deed that is not to be done. Which one thing? This:telling a deliberate lie." —Iti 25
“我可以告诉你，如果一个人敢犯有一件事，那么就没有什么坏事他不敢做。这是一件什么事呢？就是故意撒谎。” ——《小部 Iti25》
Self-purification through well-chosen speech
"And how is one made pure in four ways by verbal action?
"There is the case where a certain person, abandoning falsespeech, abstains from false speech. When he has been called to atown meeting, a group meeting, a gathering of his relatives, hisguild, or of the royalty, if he is asked as a witness, 'Come& tell, good man, what you know': If he doesn'tknow, he says, 'I don't know.' If he does know, he says, 'I know.'If he hasn't seen, he says, 'I haven't seen.' If he has seen, hesays, 'I have seen.' Thus he doesn't consciously tell a lie for hisown sake, for the sake of another, or for the sake of any reward.Abandoning false speech, he abstains from false speech. He speaksthe truth, holds to the truth, is firm, reliable, no deceiver ofthe world.
"Abandoning divisive speech he abstains from divisive speech.What he has heard here he does not tell there to break those peopleapart from these people here. What he has heard there he does nottell here to break these people apart from those people there. Thusreconciling those who have broken apart or cementing those who areunited, he loves concord, delights in concord, enjoys concord,speaks things that create concord.
"Abandoning abusive speech, he abstains from abusive speech. Hespeaks words that are soothing to the ear, that are affectionate,that go to the heart, that are polite, appealing &pleasing to people at large.
"Abandoning idle chatter, he abstains from idle chatter. Hespeaks in season, speaks what is factual, what is in accordancewith the goal, the Dhamma, & the Vinaya. He speaks wordsworth treasuring, seasonable, reasonable, circumscribed, connectedwith the goal.
"This is how one is made pure in four ways by verbalaction."
— AN X.176
有这种情况：某个人离于谎言、戒绝了谎言。当他被市镇会议、某个组织会议、亲戚的聚会、行会、或者皇族叫去作证并对他说：“来告诉我们你所知道的，善人。” 如果他不知道，他就说“我不知道。” 如果他知道，他就说“我知道。” 如果他不曾看见，他就说“我不曾看见。”如果他曾经看见，他就说“我曾经看见。” 这样，他不会为了自己或他人、为了得到报酬而故意撒谎。他抛弃了谎言、戒绝了谎言。他说真实语，坚持真实语，坚定，可靠，不欺世人。
Its relation to the other factors of the path"And how is right view the forerunner? One discerns wrong speech as wrongspeech, and right speech as right speech. And what is wrong speech?Lying, divisive tale-bearing, abusive speech, &idle chatter. This is wrong speech...
"One tries to abandon wrong speech & to enterinto right speech: This is one's right effort. One is mindful to abandon wrong speech& to enter & remain in rightspeech: This is one's right mindfulness. Thus these three qualities — right view, right effort, & right mindfulness — run & circle around rightspeech." — MN117
The criteria for deciding what is worth saying "In the case of words that the Tathagata knows to beunfactual, untrue, unbeneficial (or: not connected with the goal),unendearing & disagreeable to others, he does notsay them.
 "In the case of words that the Tathagata knows to befactual, true, unbeneficial, unendearing &disagreeable to others, he does not say them.
 "In the case of words that the Tathagata knows to befactual, true, beneficial, but unendearing &disagreeable to others, he has a sense of the proper time forsaying them.
 "In the case of words that the Tathagata knows to beunfactual, untrue, unbeneficial, but endearing &agreeable to others, he does not say them.
 "In the case of words that the Tathagata knows to befactual, true, unbeneficial, but endearing &agreeable to others, he does not say them.
 "In the case of words that the Tathagata knows to befactual, true, beneficial, and endearing &agreeable to others, he has a sense of the proper time for sayingthem. Why is that? Because the Tathagata has sympathy for livingbeings."
— MN 58
Speak only the speech
that neither torments self
nor does harm to others.
That speech is truly well spoken.
Speak only endearing speech,
speech that is welcomed.
Speech when it brings no evil
— Sn III.3
—— 《小部 Sn III.3〉
Reflect on your speech, before, during, and after speaking[The Buddha speaks to his son, Rahula:] "Whenever you want toperform a verbal act, you should reflect on it: 'This verbal act Iwant to perform — would it lead to self-affliction, to theaffliction of others, or to both? Is it an unskillful verbal act,with painful consequences, painful results?' If, on reflection, youknow that it would lead to self-affliction, to the affliction ofothers, or to both; it would be an unskillful verbal act withpainful consequences, painful results, then any verbal act of thatsort is absolutely unfit for you to do. But if on reflection youknow that it would not cause affliction... it would be a skillfulverbal action with happy consequences, happy results, then anyverbal act of that sort is fit for you to do.
"While you are performing a verbal act, you should reflect onit: 'This verbal act I am doing — is it leading to self-affliction,to the affliction of others, or to both? Is it an unskillful verbalact, with painful consequences, painful results?' If, onreflection, you know that it is leading to self-affliction, to theaffliction of others, or to both... you should give it up. But ifon reflection you know that it is not... you may continue withit.
"Having performed a verbal act, you should reflect on it... If,on reflection, you know that it led to self-affliction, to theaffliction of others, or to both; it was an unskillful verbal actwith painful consequences, painful results, then you should confessit, reveal it, lay it open to the Teacher or to a knowledgeablecompanion in the holy life. Having confessed it... you shouldexercise restraint in the future. But if on reflection you knowthat it did not lead to affliction... it was a skillful verbalaction with happy consequences, happy results, then you should staymentally refreshed and joyful, training day and night in skillfulmental qualities."
— MN 61
Kinds of speech to be avoided bycontemplatives"Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food givenin faith, are addicted to talking about lowly topics such as these— talking about kings, robbers, ministers of state; armies, alarms,and battles; food and drink; clothing, furniture, garlands, andscents; relatives; vehicles; villages, towns, cities, thecountryside; women and heroes; the gossip of the street and thewell; tales of the dead; tales of diversity [philosophicaldiscussions of the past and future], the creation of the world andof the sea, and talk of whether things exist or not — he abstainsfrom talking about lowly topics such as these. This, too, is partof his virtue.
"Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food givenin faith, are addicted to debates such as these — 'Youunderstand this doctrine and discipline? I'm the one whounderstands this doctrine and discipline. How could you understandthis doctrine and discipline? You're practicing wrongly. I'mpracticing rightly. I'm being consistent. You're not. What shouldbe said first you said last. What should be said last you saidfirst. What you took so long to think out has been refuted. Yourdoctrine has been overthrown. You're defeated. Go and try tosalvage your doctrine; extricate yourself if you can!' — heabstains from debates such as these. This, too, is part of hisvirtue."
— DN 2
Ten wholesome topics of conversation"There are these ten topics of [proper] conversation. Which ten?Talk on modesty, on contentment, on seclusion, on non-entanglement,on arousing persistence, on virtue,on concentration, on discernment, on release, and on the knowledge& vision of release. These are the ten topics ofconversation. If you were to engage repeatedly in these ten topicsof conversation, you would outshine even the sun &moon, so mighty, so powerful — to say nothing of the wanderers ofothersects." — AN X.69
有十种[恰当]的话题。哪十种呢？谈论少欲、知足、远离、离缚、精进、戒、定、慧、解脱、解脱知见。这就是十种[恰当]的话题。如果你常常参与这十种对话，你甚至会比巨大而俱大力之日月更光耀，更不用说别的宗教的修行人。 ——《增支部 X.69》
How to admonish anotherskillfully"O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu who desires to admonish another should doso after investigating five conditions in himself and afterestablishing five other conditions in himself. What are the fiveconditions which he should investigate in himself?
 "Am I one who practices purity in bodilyaction, flawless and untainted...?
 "Am I one who practices purity in speech,flawless and untainted...?
 "Is the heart of goodwill, free frommalice, established in me towards fellow-farers in the holylife...?
 "Am I or am I not one who has heard much,who bears in mind what he has heard, who stores up what he hasheard? Those teachings which are good alike in their beginning,middle, and ending, proclaiming perfectly the spirit and the letterof the utterly purified holy life — have such teachings been muchheard by me, borne in mind, practiced in speech, pondered in theheart and rightly penetrated by insight...?
 "Are the Patimokkhas [rules of conduct for monks and nuns]in full thoroughly learned by heart, well-analyzed with thoroughknowledge of their meanings, clearly divided sutta by sutta andknown in minute detail by me...?
"These five conditions must be investigated in himself.
"And what other five conditions must be established inhimself?
 "Do I speak at the right time, or not?
 "Do I speak of facts, or not?
 "Do I speak gently or harshly?
 "Do I speak profitable words or not?
 "Do I speak with a kindly heart, orinwardly malicious?
"O bhikkhus, these five conditions are to be investigated inhimself and the latter five established in himself by a bhikkhu whodesires to admonish another."
— AN V (From The Patimokkha, Ñanamoli Thera, trans.)
总评分: 经验 + 5